Our new issue — looking at what the Bernie campaigns accomplished — is out now. Subscribe in print today! George Orwell arrived in Barcelona at the tail end of , just months into the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. At the start of the tumultuous events of July , which plunged the country into civil war, farm and factory had been spontaneously commandeered by armed and organized workers across vast swaths of Spain. Abortion was legalized and women enjoyed a newfound liberation from the shackles of traditional marriage. Having dropped into the heart of revolutionary Spain in the region of Catalonia, Orwell went on to record his experiences in Homage to Catalonia , his first-hand account of a war and revolution. Practically every building of any size had been seized by the workers and was draped with red flags or with the red and black flag of the Anarchists … Every shop and cafe had an inscription saying that it had been collectivized; even the bootblacks had been collectivized and their boxes painted red and black … There were no private motor-cars, they had all been commandeered, and the trams and taxis and much of the other transport were painted red and black. The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues…. The civil war had been triggered by an attempted right-wing army coup in July against the elected, left-leaning Republican government.
The Spanish Civil War, 1936
Republicans loyal to the left -leaning Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic , in alliance with anarchists , of the communist and syndicalist variety, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists , an alliance of Falangists , monarchists , conservatives and Catholics , led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets and was variously viewed as class struggle , a war of religion , a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy , between revolution and counterrevolution , and between fascism and communism.
This left Spain militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany , while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
The site is also home to tens of thousands Civil War dead from both sides of the religious right, heirs and defenders of Franco, against the liberal, secular left.
During the s the Trades Union Congress produced literally thousands of files on a wide range of subjects. The TUC was not just interested in the day-to-day work of its affiliated unions, it looked into most topics that could affect the lives of working men and women in Britain. The organisation’s strong international links, through trade unions and socialist organisations in other countries, gave it a network of informants on conditions elsewhere in the world.
The Trades Union Congress compiled more files on the Spanish Civil War than on any other international issue during the s, reflecting the impact that the conflict had on the British labour movement. All of these files have now been digitised and are freely available online. To ‘browse’ individual files, click on the links below. It is also possible to search across all files.
Why intellectuals like Hemingway got involved in the Spanish Civil War
The Spanish civil war July —April was a brutal fratricidal struggle. Representing the clash between diametrically opposed views of Spain, it was a battle to settle crucial issues that had divided Spaniards for generations: agrarian reform , recognition of the identity of the historical regions Catalonia, the Basque Country , and the roles of the Catholic Church and the armed forces in a modern state.
Spain’s tragedy, however, cannot be separated from the wider European picture.
Since its first publication, Hugh Thomas’s The Spanish Civil War has become What was it that roused left-wing sympathizers from all over the world to fight of the Spanish Civil War is the most thorough version of the events written to date. is demonstrated by the overwhelming amount of detail lavished on every page.
The civil war that ensued is often viewed as a precursor to the Second World War for the way it sucked in the wider international community. Best-selling military historian Antony Beevor talked to David Musgrove about the conflict and its wide-reaching consequences On 14 April Spain was declared a republic for the second time — the first being —4. King Alfonso XIII fled and the new government initiated a sweeping reform agenda, designed to redistribute social and economic power. There was considerable resistance to the reforms of the first Socialist government of the Republic, particularly based on its measures to divorce church from state.
This resistance led, in November , to a conservative government being returned to power, putting an end to the left-wing reform programme. In October , the left attempted to start a revolutionary general strike. This failed and an armed rebellion that resulted in Asturias was forcefully put down by General Franco and the Spanish army. In July of that year, the army launched a military coup against the Republican government, and thus the civil war began. Though 27 countries, including Britain, France, the Soviet Union, Germany and Italy, signed a Non-Intervention pact in September , the war did soon take on an international element.
Despite signing the pact, the Soviet Union did provide military assistance to the Republicans, and the Nationalist rebels were similarly supported by Nazi Germany and fascist Italy. Britain and France remained theoretically neutral, though in practice Britain was more neutral to the Nationalists than it was to the Republicans. With greater international support, the war swung to the Nationalist side and, by February , the Republic was in a state of collapse. Following the victory, Franco went on to rule Spain as a ruthless dictator, suppressing all opposition, until his death in November
For whom the bell continues to toll
Far from being just an internal event, the Spanish Civil War of also had a great deal of global influence, attracting left-wing volunteers from all over the world to help defend the constitutionally-elected Second Republic government from the coup d’etat of nationalists led by General Francisco Franco, who was supported by Hitler and Mussolini.
Franco’s eventually victory established him as Europe’s longest ruling dictator until his death in Briefly summarising the causes of the Spanish Civil War is not easy. It stemmed from a socio-political stew that could only have been made in Spain. King Alfonso XIII of Spain assumed power in , becoming increasingly autocratic, and in was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader, Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona.
of the Spanish fleet which should be accomplished at the earliest possible date. Roosevelt left to become a lieutenant colonel in the First Volunteer Cavalry The Oregon left San Francisco on 19 March, under the command of Captain For a first hand account of this operation see Richard P. Hobson, The Sinking of.
An accurate depiction of a cruel, dramatic situation, Guernica was created to be part of the Spanish Pavilion at the International Exposition in Paris in Despite that, neither the studies nor the finished picture contain a single allusion to a specific event, constituting instead a generic plea against the barbarity and terror of war. The huge picture is conceived as a giant poster, testimony to the horror that the Spanish Civil War was causing and a forewarning of what was to come in the Second World War.
The muted colours, the intensity of each and every one of the motifs and the way they are articulated are all essential to the extreme tragedy of the scene, which would become the emblem for all the devastating tragedies of modern society. Guernica has attracted a number of controversial interpretations, doubtless due in part to the deliberate use in the painting of only greyish tones.
Analysing the iconography in the painting, one Guernica scholar, Anthony Blunt, divides the protagonists of the pyramidal composition into two groups, the first of which is made up of three animals; the bull, the wounded horse and the winged bird that can just be made out in the background on the left. The second group is made up of the human beings, consisting of a dead soldier and a number of women: the one on the upper right, holding a lamp and leaning through a window, the mother on the left, wailing as she holds her dead child, the one rushing in from the right and finally the one who is crying out to the heavens, her arms raised as a house burns down behind her.
Paloma Esteban Leal.
Nazanine Moshiri. Date of publication: 1 September, It is a bleak and sad period in Spanish history.
In response to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in , the CrossRef citations to date Rather than focusing on British perceptions of only left-wing groups in Spain, this View all notes William Montagu-Pollock, a Foreign Office official with experience in the Diplomatic Service, concurred, noting.
This book presents a new history of the most important conflict in European affairs during the s, the Spanish Civil War. It describes the complex origins of the conflict, the collapse of the Spanish Republic and the outbreak of the only mass worker revolution in the history of Western Europe. Stanley Payne explains the character of the Spanish revolution and the complex web of republican politics, while also examining the development of Franco’s counter-revolutionary dictatorship.
Payne gives attention to the multiple meanings and interpretations of war and examines why the conflict provoked such strong reactions at the time, and long after. The book also explains the military history of the war and its place in the history of military development, the non-intervention policy of the democracies and the role of German, Italian and Soviet intervention, concluding with an analysis of the place of the war in European affairs, in the context of twentieth-century revolutionary civil wars.
Read more Read less. Fire Phones Fire Phone. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Paul Preston. Helen Graham. Antony Beevor. Ed West.
Published: in New Politics no 1 Summer Between myth and reality there lies a precarious zone of transition that occasionally captures the truth of each. Spain, caught in a world-historic revolution fifty years ago, was exactly such an occasion—a rare moment when the most generous, almost mythic dreams of freedom seemed suddenly to become real for millions of Spanish workers, peasants, and intellectuals. For this brief period of time, this shimmering moment, as it were, the world stood breathlessly still, while the red banners of revolutionary socialism and the red-and-black banners of revolutionary anarchosyndicalism floated over most of Spain’s major cities and thousands of her villages.
Date of publication: 1 September, Most of the soldiers recruited by Franco in the Spanish Civil War were not from the left-wing administrations of the Soviet Union and Mexico. We use our own cookies and third-party cookies to measure traffic to our website and analyse browsers’ behaviour, with.
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Browse the files
Spanish Civil War , —39 , military revolt against the Republican government of Spain , supported by conservative elements within the country. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. The Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union as well as from the International Brigades , composed of volunteers from Europe and the United States.
The subsequent crushing of the Socialist-led revolution resulted in a period of CEDA supremacy. About forty thousand left-wing militants languished in prisons,.
Within three days, the rebels captured Morocco, much of northern Spain, and several key cities in the south. The Republicans and the Nationalists, as the rebels were called, then proceeded to secure their respective territories by executing thousands of suspected political opponents. Meanwhile, Franco flew to Morocco and prepared to bring the Army of Africa over to the mainland. In , Spanish King Alfonso XIII authorized elections to decide the government of Spain, and voters overwhelmingly chose to abolish the monarchy in favor of a liberal republic.
Alfonso went into exile, and the Second Republic, initially dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, was proclaimed. During the first two years of the Republic, organized labor and leftist radicals forced widespread liberal reforms, and the independence-minded region of Catalonia and the Basque provinces achieved virtual autonomy. The landed aristocracy, the church and a large military clique opposed the Republic, and in November conservative forces regained control of the government in elections.
In response, socialists launched a revolution in the mining districts of Asturias, and Catalan nationalists rebelled in Barcelona. General Franco crushed the so-called October Revolution on behalf of the conservative government, and in he was appointed army chief of staff.